In our Biology classes we started working on macromolecules. In this case, we were split into three groups, each group was assigned with one molecule. I had to work with Catu, Rochi, Epi, Juani, Pancho and Nico. Our macromolecules was proteins.

THIS is our presentation.

Here you can also check the other presentations my classmates did on the left macromolecules:


Biomolecules chart

In Biology, in the past few classes, we’ve been studying and learning about some of the most important biomolecules: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Then, we had to confiscate a chart comparing these 3. I worked with Rochi Hartmann and Bauti Olaizola.

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins
Chemical elements Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen
Bonds Glycosidic bonds Ester bonds Peptide Bond
Components Monosaccharides, disaccharides and oligosaccharides Fatty acids + glycerol Aminoacids
Solubility All solubles except from oligosaccharides that are not soluble Insoluble Some are soluble (ex: haemoglobin) and others are not (ex: keratin)
Functions Provide energy to respire, regulate blood glucose and use proteins in other beneficial ways Act as insulators, a source of energy and also are used as storage for energy Help cell growth and makes new ones. It’s a source of energy. Proteins also repair tissues and produce enzymes
Chemical Tests Benedict solution. We have to test for reducing sugars. We carry out this test by adding the benedict reagent to a food sample and then heat it up. If sugars are present then an orange/red colour will appear. Ethanol emulsion. We first chop the food sample and put it into a test tube. We then add ethanol and shake it up. If a milky emulsion appears at the top of the mixture, then lipids are present. Biuret Solution. We add some drops of the biuret reagent to our food sample and if a purple color appears then proteins are present, if not the mixture will remain the same.
Sources Bread, sugar, pasta Oil, avocado and butter Egg, meat and soya

We also had to search for a definition for HYDROLYSIS and we came up with this:

Definition: Hydrolysis is the break-down of a component because of its reaction to water.
– Hydrolysis is the opposite of condensation. In the last one, two molecules join together into a larger one and eject a water molecule. Hydrolysis adds water to break down, whereas condensation builds up by removing water.

Endocrine System

In our biology classes we have just started studying the endocrine system, so our teacher Male, asked us to do an activity on it:

1.Define HORMONE.
Hormones are chemical substances  that are produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one oor more specific target organs.

2. Search in the internet a picture which shows the glands which secrete  hormones in the human body .


What hormones secrete each gland:

Adrenal gland: Adrenaline
Pancreas: Insuline
Testis: Testosterone
Ovary: Oestrogen
Thymus: Thymosin
Thyroid gland: Thyroxine and calcitonin
Pituitary gland: Growth hormone
Pineal gland: Melatonin

3. ADRENALINE. State the effects of adrenaline. Chose a picture which shows a situation in which adrenaline is secreated. Explain.

Adrenaline is when you are frightened, excited or keyed up. There your brain sends impulses along a nerve to your adrenal glands, and these secrete adrenaline into the blood. The main effects of adrenaline are: Your hearts beats faster, your breathing rate increases, your pain body’s ability decreases and it causes a noticeable increase in strength and performance.



Nervous system

In Biology we started learning about new topic: the nervous system. We had to watch a video, take down notes and do some activities on Male’s blog. [TASK]

  1. a.  -The control centre.– The receptors.– The neurones.– Central nervous system.– The nervous system.

b.   Motor Neuron: Carry signals from the CNS to the effects.


Sensory Neuron: Carry signals from receptors to the CNS.


Relay Neuron: Carry messages from one part of the CNS to another.


Neuron Synapse: a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

Video of neuron synapse:

Excretion and kidneys

For our Biology class, our teacher, Male, gave us a worksheet with some questions for us to answer to revise the topic of excretion and kidneys.

1) a) Define the terms excretion and egestion

Excretion as removal from organisms of the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration), toxic materials, and substances in excess of requirements.
Egestion as the passing out of food that has not been digested or absorbed, as faeces, through the anus

1) b) The kidney is an excretory organ. It produces urine that contains urea. State where in the body urea is formed and what is formed from.

Urea is expelled from of the kidneys, and it is made out of the excess of water and salts.


In Biology we’ve been learning about cellular respiration. Here’s an activity Male left for Rochi, Nico and I to do:


1 – State the uses of energy in our body.

– Contracting muscles, so that we can move parts of the body

– Making protein molecules by linking together amino acids into long chains

– Cell division, so that we can repair damaged tissues and can grow

– Active transport, so that we can move substances across cell membranes up their concentration gradient

– Transmiting nerve impulses, so that we can transfer information quickly from one part of the body to another

– Producing heat inside the body, to keep the body temperature constant even if the environment is cold

2 – Construct a mind map about respiration. You may do it on a sheet of paper or use any of the tools available such as

You should include:

a- Definitions

b- Types: Aerobic and anaerobic (in muscles and yeast)

c- Equation in words

d- Amount of energy released

Mind map

3 – Explain the meaning of “oxygen debt”

Anaerobic respiration produces an oxygen debt. This is the amount of oxygen needed to oxidise lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water. The existence of an oxygen debt explains why we continue to breathe deeply and quickly for a while after exercise.

 4- Search in the internet a short video, which explains why the breathing rate does not return to normal immediately after vigorous exercise stops.